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Our Inspire Democracy tools and resources are based in a variety of research about civic engagement.

If you're interested in reading some of the research that's informed our program, check out the links below on:

Civic Engagement and Barriers to Electoral Participation

Hendren, Paul. 2018. « Getting Out the Vote: Outreach Strategies to Increase Engagement and Participation in the 2018 City of Vancouver Election. » University of Victoria.

Bilodeau, Antoine. 2017. « Mobilisation or Demobilisation? Percieved Discrimination and Political Engagement Among Visible Minorities in Quebec. »Political Science 69, 2. [Abstract, Voilà]

House of Commons. 2016. « Diversity and Engagement: A Parliament That Mirrors Canada. » Strengthening Democracy in Canada: Principles, Process and Public Engagements for Electoral Reform.

Coulombe, Maxime. 2018. « La province de l'Île-du-Prince-Édouard : une figure d'exception au Canada en matière de participation électorale » Thèse de maîtrise en science politique, Université de Montréal.

« Changing The Way We Talk About Women In Politics. »Policy Options.

Hanbidge, Helen. 2018. « A Woman's Place is in the House (of Commons). » Master’s research paper in Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa.

First Nations, Métis, and Inuit electors

Dabin, Simon, Jean François Daoust and Martin Papillon. 2018. « Indigenous Peoples and Affinity Voting in Canada. » Forthcoming in Canadian Journal of Political Science.

Goodman, Nicole, Chelsea Gabel and Brian Budd. 2018. « Online Voting in Indigenous Communities: Lessons from Canada. » International Joint Conference on Electronic Voting: E-Vote ID 2018. [Abstract, Voilà]

Elections Canada. 2011. « Aboriginal Electoral Participation in Canada »

Elections Canada. 2009. « Aboriginal Policy Research Conference »

Elections Canada. 2003. Electoral Insight – Aboriginal Participation in Elections

People with Disabilities

Kelly, Brendan D. and Michael Nash. 2018. « Voter Participation Among People Attending Mental Health Services in Ireland. » Forthcoming from Irish Journal of Medical Science. [Abstract, Voilà]

Couture, Jérôme and Sandra Breux. 2017. « The Differentiated Effects of Health on Political Participation. » The Journal of Public Health 27, 4.

Langford, Brynne, and Mario Levesque. 2017. « Symbolic and Substantive Relevance of Politicians with Disabilities: A British Columbia Case Study. » Canadian Parliamentary Review 40, 2.

Levesque, Mario. 2017. « Vulnerable Populations and the Permanent Campaign: Disability Organization as Policy Entrepreneurs. » Permanent Campaigning in Canada. Edited by Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson, Anna Lennox Esselment. [Preview, Voilà]

McColl, Mary Ann, Atul Jaiswal and Lynn Roberts. 2017. « A Review of Federal Disability Policy in Canada. » 3rd ed. Canadian Disability Policy Alliance.

Spagnuolo, Natalie and Fady Shanouda. 2017. « Who Counts and Who is Counted? Conversations around Voting Access, and Divisions in the Disability Community. » Disability & Society 32, 5.

Levesque, Mario. 2016. « Searching for Persons with Disabilities in Canadian Provincial Office. » Canadian Journal of Disability Studies 5, 1.

van Hees, Suzanne G.M., Hennie R. Boeije and Iris de Putter. 2019. « Voting Barriers and Solutions: the Experiences of People With Disabilities During the Dutch National Election in 2017. » Forthcoming in Disability and Society. [Abstract, Voilà]

James, Elaine, Mark Harvey and Chris Hatton. 2018. « Participation of Adults With Learning Disabilities in the 2015 UK General Election. » [Abstract, Voilà]

Reher, Stefanie. 2018. « Mind This Gap, Too: Political Orientations of People with Disabilities in Europe. » Forthcoming in Political Behavior

Elections Canada. 2004. Electoral Insight –Persons with Disabilties and Elections

New Canadians

Horwitz, Sima Nechama. 2018. « Blended Identities and Immigrant Political Participation. » Thesis paper for a Doctor of Philosophy in Political Science. Stony Brook University.

Dixon, Zita, Melissa L. Bessaha and Margaret Post. « Beyond the Ballot: Immigrant Integration Through Civic Engagement and Advocacy. » Race and Social Problems 10, 4. [Abstract, Voilà]

Barker, Fiona and Kate McMillan. 2017. « Introduction: Researching Immigrant and Emigrant Voting. » Political Science 69, 2. [Abstract, Voilà]

Chareka, Ottilia. 2017. « Dilemmas and Challenges of Democratic Participation of Immigrants in Small Atlantic Canadian Communities. »  In Canadian Perspectives on Immigration in Small Cities. Edited by Glenda Tibe Bonifacio and Julie L. Drolet. [Abstract, Preview, Voilà]

White, Stephen E. 2017. « Canadian Immigrants At the Polls: The Effects of Socialisation in the Country of Origin and Resocialisation in Canada on Electoral Participation. » Political Science 69, 2. [Abstract, Voilà]

Bilodeau, Antoine. 2016. Just Ordinary Citizens? Towards a Comparative Portrait of the Political Immigrant. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. [ Preview, Voilà]

Chareka, Ottilia. 2016. « Dilemmas and Challenges of Democratic Participation of Immigrants in Small Atlantic Canadian Communities. » Canadian Perspectives on Immigration in Small Cities. Edited by Glenda Tibe Bonifacio and Julie Drolet. [Abstract, Voilà]

Elections Canada. 2006. Electoral Insight – Electoral Participation of Ethnocultural Communities.

Pons, Vincent and Guillaume Liegey. 2018. « Increasing The Electoral Participation of Immigrants: Experimental Evidence From France.. » Forthcoming in The Economic Journal.

Youth (18-24)

Evans, Mark, Rosemary Evans and Angela Vemic. 2018. « Youth Civic Engagement and Formal Education in Canada: Shifting Expressions, Associated Challenges. » in Davies, Ian, et al. (eds), The Palgrave Handbook of Citizenship and Education. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. [Abstract, Voilà]

Dong, Suhua. 2019. « The Effects of First-Generation Status on Student Engagement and Outcomes at Liberal Arts Colleges. » Forthcoming in Journal of College Student Development. [Abstract, Voilà]

Finn, Melissa and Bessma Momani. 2017. « Voting Controversy: A Critical Analysis of the Canadian Arab Youth Vote in the 2015 Federal Election. » Canadian Political Science Review 11, 1.

Martinez, M. Loreto, et al. 2019. « Patterns of Civic and Political Commitment in Early Adolescence. » Forthcoming in The Journal of Early Adolescence. [Abstract, Voilà]

Samara. 2015. « Message Not Delivered : The Myth of Apathetic Youth and the Importance of Contact in Political Participation »

Blais, André and Loewen, Peter. 2011. « Youth Electoral Engagement in Canada »

Howe, Paul. 2010. « Citizens Adrift: The Democratic Disengagement of Young Canadians » (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010). Read the introduction here

Elections Canada. 2016. Student Parallel Election Program (Student Vote) Evaluation

Elections Canada. 2016. Estimation of Voter Turnout by Age Group and Gender at the 2015 General Election

Elections Canada. 2015. 2015 National Youth Survey

Elections Canada. 2011. Student Vote Program Evaluation

Elections Canada. 2003. Electoral Insight – Youth Participation in Elections