Inspire Democracy Logo
Site Menu

What Parties do to Engage and Mobilize Youth: A Literature Review of Five Countries

Share this report   Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on LinkedIn


Addonizio, Elizabeth M., Donald P. Green, and James M. Glaser. 2007. "Putting the Party Back into Politics: An Experiment Testing Whether Election Day Festivals Increase Voter Turnout." Political Science and Politics 40, 4: 721–27.

Aldrich, John H., Jacob M. Montgomery, and Wendy Wood. 2011. "Turnout as a Habit." Political Behavior 33, 4: 535–63.

Almond, Gabriel A., and Sidney Verba. 1963. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Anderson, Cameron, and Laura Stephenson. 2010. Voting Behaviour in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Anstead, Nick, and Andrew Chadwick. 2009. "Parties, Election Campaigning, and the Internet." The Routledge Handbook of Internet Politics. Edited by Andrew Chadwick and Philip N. Howard. London, UK: Routledge.

Avey, Michael. 1989. The Demobilization of American Voters. New York: Greenwood.

Banducci, Susan A., Todd Donovan, and Jeffrey A. Karp. 1999. "Proportional Representation and Attitudes About Politics: Results from New Zealand." Electoral Studies 18: 533–55.

Barnes, Samuel H., and Max Kaase. 1979. Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Bastedo, Heather. 2012. They Don't Stand for Me: Generational Difference in Voter Mobilization and the Importance of Symbolic Representation in Youth Voter Turnout. PhD Dissertation. Toronto: University of Toronto. Available at:

———. 2013. Youth Primaries Focus Group Project: A Discussion of the Impact of Retail Politics on Youth Voter Turnout in Canada. Paper prepared for presentation at the Canadian Political Science Association Meeting June 2013.

Bedolla, Lisa Garcia, and Melissa R. Michelson. 2012. Mobilizing Inclusion. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bennett, Stephen E. 1991. "Left Behind: Exploring Declining Turnout Among Non-College Young Whites, 1964–1988." Social Science Quarterly 72: 314–33.

Bennion, Elizabeth A. 2005. "Caught in the Ground Wars: Mobilizing Voters During a Competitive Congressional Campaign." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 601: 123–41.

Bergan, Daniel E., et al. 2005. "Grassroots Mobilization and Voter Turnout in 2004." Public Opinion Quarterly 69, 5: 760–77.

Berry, Craig. 2008. "Labour's Lost Youth: Young People and the Labour Party's Youth Sections." The Political Quarterly 79, 3: 366–76.

Blais, André, and Daniel Rubenson. 2012. "The Source of Turnout Decline: New Values or New Contexts?" Comparative Political Studies. Available at:

Blais, Andre, et al. 2004. "Where Does Turnout Decline Come From?" European Journal of Political Research 43: 221–236.

Blydenburgh, John C. 1971. "A Controlled Experiment to Measure the Effects of Personal Contact Campaigning." Midwest Journal of Political Science 15: 365–81.

Bochel, John M., and David D. Denver. 1972. "The Impact of the Campaign on the Results of Local Government." British Journal of Political Science 2: 239–43.

Bond, Robert M., et al. 2012. "A 61-Million-Person Experiment in Social Influence and Political Mobilization." Nature 489, 7415: 295–98.

Brader, Ted. 2005. "Striking a Responsive Chord: How Political Ads Motivate and Persuade Voters by Appealing to Emotions." American Journal of Political Science 49, 2: 388–405.

Bruter, Michael, and Sarah Harrison. 2009. The Future of Our Democracies: Young Party Members in Europe. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.

Cain, Bruce E. and Ken McCue. 1985. "The Efficacy of Registration Drives." Journal of Politics 47 (November): 1221–30.

Cain, Bruce, John Ferejohn, and Morris Fiorina. 1987. The Personal Vote: Constituency Service and Electoral Independence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Calderia, Gregory A., et al. 1990. "Partisan Mobilization and Electoral Participation." Electoral Studies 9, 3: 191–204.

Campbell, Angus, et al. 1960. The American Voter. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Cardy, Emily Arthur. 2005. "An Experimental Field Study of the GOTV and Persuasion Effects of Partisan Direct Mail and Phone Calls." The Science of Voter Mobilization. Special Editors Donald P. Green and Alan S. Gerber. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. vol. 601: 28–40.

Carlin, Cali. 2011. "The Young Vote: Engaging America's Youth in the 2008 Elections and Beyond." Engaging Youth in Politics. Edited by Russell Dalton. New York: Idebate Press.

Carty, Kenneth R., and Munroe Eagles. 1999. "Do Local Campaigns Matter? Campaign Spending, the Local Canvass and Party Support in Canada." Electoral Studies 18: 69–87.

———. 2004. "Electoral Cycles, Party Organization and Mobilization in Canada." Australian Journal of Politics and History 50, 4: 556–72.

———. 2006. National Politics at the Grassroots. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
CBS.MTV/NY Times Poll. 2007. The State of the Youth Nation: 2007. Available at: 2007.pdf.

Chandler, William M., and Alan Siaroff. 1991. "Parties and Party Government in Advanced Democracies." Canadian Political Parties: Leaders, Candidates and Organization, Vol. 13 of the Research Studies for the Royal Commission on Electoral Reform and Party Financing, ed. Herman Bakvis, 191–263. Toronto: Dundurn Press.

CIRCLE Staff. 2012. Young Voters in the 2012 Presidential Election: The Educational Gap Remains. Available at:

Clarke, Harold D., et al. 2004. Political Choice in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cox, Gary W. 1999. "Electoral Rules and the Calculus of Mobilization." Legislative Studies Quarterly, 24: 387–420.

Cox, Gary W., and Michael C. Munger. 1989. "Closeness, Expenditures, and Turnout in the 1982 U.S. House Elections." American Political Science Review 83: 217–31.

Cross, William, ed. 2010. Auditing Canadian Democracy. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Cross, William. 2004. The Canadian Democratic Audit: Political Parties. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Cross, William, and Lisa Young. 2002. "Policy Attitudes of Party Members in Canada: Evidence of Ideological Politics." Canadian Journal of Political Science 35, 4: 859–80.

———. 2004. "The Contours of Political Party Membership in Canada." Party Politics 10, 4: 427–44.

———. 2008. "Factors Influencing the Decision of the Young Politically Engaged to Join a Political Party." Party Politics 14, 3: 345–69.

Cross, William and Lisa Young. 2006. "Are Canadian Political Parties Empty Vessels?" Choices 12, 4: 21.

Crotty, William J. 1971. "Party Effort and Its Impact on the Vote." American Political Science Review 65: 439–50.

Curtin, Jennifer. 2010. "Youth Participation." New Zealand Government & Politics. Edited by Raymond Miller. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Dale, Allison, and Aaron Strauss. 2007. "Mobilizing the Mobiles: How Text Messaging Can Boost Youth Voter Turnout." Available at:

Dalton, Russell J., ed. 2011. Engaging Youth in Politics: Debating Democracy's Future. New York: Idebate Press.

Dalton, Russell J., and Christopher J. Anderson. 2011. Citizens, Context, and Choice. Oxford: University Press.

Dalton, Russell J., and Martin P. Wattenberg, (eds.). 2000. Parties Without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dalton, Russell J., David M. Farrell, and Ian McAllister. 2011. Political Parties and Democratic Linkage: How Parties Organize Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Darrow, Carolyn. 2003. "Best Practices: Nonpartisan Guide on Voter Mobilization." Youth Vote Coalition. Available at:

Davenport, Tiffany C., et al. 2010. "The Enduring Effects of Social Pressure: Tracking Campaign Experiments Over a Series of Elections." Political Behavior 32, 3: 423–30.

Delacourt, Susan. 2013. Shopping for Votes: How Politicians Choose Us and We Choose Them. Canada: Douglas and McIntrye

Delany, Colin. 2009. "Learning from Obama: Lessons for Online Communicators in 2009 and Beyond." Available at:

Denny, Kevin and Orla Doyle. 2009. "Does Voting History Matter? Analyzing Persistence in Turnout." American Journal of Political Science 53,1: 17–35.

Diamond, Larry, and Richard Gunther. 2001. Political Parties and Democracy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

Eldersveld, Samuel J. 1956. "Experimental Propaganda Techniques and Voting Behavior." The American Political Science Review 50, 1: 154–65.

Elections Canada. 2011. National Youth Survey Report. 2011. Prepared by R.A. Malatest & Associates Ltd. Available at:

Ellis, Andrew, et al. 2009. Engaging the Electorate: Initiatives to Promote Voter Turnout from Around the World, Including Voter Turnout Data from National Elections Worldwide 1945–2006. Strömsborg, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA).

Epstein, Leon D. 1980. Political Parties in Western Democracies. New Brunswick: NJ, Transaction Books.

Esaiasson, Peter. 1992. "Scandinavia." Electioneering: A Comparative Study of Continuity and Change. Edited by David Butler and Austin Ranney. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 202–16.

Fabrigar, Leandre R., et al. 1998. "The Impact of Attitude Accessibility on Elaboration of Persuasive Messages." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24, 4: 339–52.

Falck, Marianne. 2007. "Political Youth Organizations: Strengthening the Voice of Youth in Politics: The Finnish Experience." Merikasarmi, Finland: Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.

Feldmann-Wojachina, Eva, et al. 2010. "Youth Participation in Finland and in Germany." Helsinki, Finland: The Finish Youth Research Society.

Flanagan, Tom. 2009. Harper's Team. 2nd ed. Montréal: McGill-Queen's University Press.

———. 2014. Winning Power: Canadian Campaigning in the 21st Century. Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Gen44. 2013. Organization for Action. Available at:

Gerber, Alan S., and Donald P. Green. 2000. "The Effects of Canvassing, Telephone Calls, and Direct Mail on Voter Turnout: A Field Experiment." American Political Science Review 94, 3: 653–63.

———. 2008. Get Out the Vote: How to Increase Voter Turnout. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

———. 2010. "Introduction to Social Pressure and Voting: New Experimental Evidence." Political Behavior 32: 331–36.

Gerber, Alan S., and Todd Rogers. 2009. "Descriptive Social Norms and Motivation to Vote: Everybody's Voting and So Should You." The Journal of Politics 71, 1: 178.

Gerber, Alan S., Donald P. Green, and Christopher Larimer. 2008. "Social Pressure and Voter Turnout: Evidence from a Large-Scale Field Experiment." American Political Science Review 102, 1: 33–48.

Gerber, Alan S., Donald P. Green, and Matthew N. Green. 2003. "The Effects of Partisan Direct Mail on Voter Turnout." Electoral Studies 22 (December): 563–79.

Gerber, Alan S., Donald P. Green, and Ron Shachar. 2003. "Voting May be Habit-Forming: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment." American Journal of Political Science 47, 3: 540–50.

Gerodimos, Roman. 2008. "Mobilising Young Citizens in the UK." Information, Communication, and Society 11, 7: 964–88.

Gibson, Rachel K. 2013. "Party Change, Social Media and the Rise of 'Citizen-Initiated' Campaigning." Party Politics. [Subscription required]

Gidengil, Elisabeth, et al. 2003. "Turned Off or Tuned Out? Youth Participation in Politics." Electoral Insight. Available at:

Gidengil, Elisabeth, et al. 2004. Citizens. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Gidengil, Elisabeth, et al. January 2005. "Missing the Message: Young Adults and the Elections Issues." Electoral Insight. Available at:

Gidengil, Elisabeth, et al. 2012. Dominance and Decline: Making Sense of Recent Canadian Elections. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Gosnell, Harold F. 1927. Getting-Out-The-Vote: An Experiment in the Stimulation of Voting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Green, Donald P., and Alan S. Gerber, eds. 2005. "Recent Advances in the Science of Voter Mobilization." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 601: 6–9.

Green, Donald P., and Alan S. Gerber. 2001. "Getting Out the Youth Vote: Results from Randomized Field Experiments." Unpublished report to the Pew Charitable Trusts and Yale University's Institute for Social and Policy Studies.

———. 2008. Get Out the Vote: How to Increase Voter Turnout. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Green, Donald P. 2004. "The Effects of an Election Day Voter Mobilization Campaign Targeting Young Voters." Circle Working Paper. New Haven, CT: The Center for Information and Research in Civic Learning and Engagement.

Green, John C., and Daniel J. Coffey. 2011. The State of Parties: The Changing Role of Contemporary American Parties. Lamham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Haid, Phillip. 2003. "Marketing Voter Participation to the MuchMusic Generation." Electoral Insight. Available at:

Harvard University Institute of Politics. "Young Voters and Participation." April 2007.

Heitshusen, Valerie, Garry Young, and David M. Wood. 2005. "Electoral Context and MP Constituency Focus in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom." American Journal of Political Science 49: 32–45.

Henn, Matt, and Nick Foard. 2011. "Young People, Political Participation and Trust in Britain." Prepared for EPOP Annual Conference at the University of Exeter.

Highton, Benjamin, and Raymond E. Wolfinger. 2001. "The First Seven Years of the Political Life Cycle." American Journal of Political Science, 202–209.

Hillygus, D. Sunshine. 2005. "Campaign Effects and the Dynamics of Turnout Intention in Election 2005." The Journal of Politics 67, 1: 50–68.

HM Government. 2007. The Governance of Britain. HMSO, CM 7170. Available at:

———. 2010. An Agenda for Youth Engagement – Government Response to the Recommendations of the Youth Citizenship Commission. Available at:

Howe, Paul. 2007. "The Electoral Participation of Young Canadians." Ottawa: Elections Canada.

———. 2010. Citizens Adrift. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Huckfeldt, Robert, and John Sprague. 1992. "Political Parties and Electoral Mobilization: Political Structure, Social Structure, and the Party Canvas." American Political Science Review 86: 70–86.

Imai, Kosuke, and Aaron Strauss. 2009. "Planning the Optimal Get-Out-The-Vote Campaign Using Randomized Field Experiments." Unpublished manuscript. Princton, NJ: Princeton University.

Inglehart, Ronald. 1990. Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton.

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. 1999. Youth Voter Participation: Involving Today's Young in Tomorrow's Democracy. Stockholm: International IDEA.

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. "Voter Turnout." Available at: Page last updated October 2012.

Ipsos MORI 2010. How Britain Voted in 2010 [Online] Available at:

Issenberg, Sasha. 2012. The Victory Lab. New York: Crown Publishers.

Jackson, Robert. 1996. "A Reassessment of Voter Mobilization." Political Research Quarterly 49: 331–49.

Jansen, Harold, Melanee Thomas, and Lisa Young. 2012. "Who Donates to Canadian Political Parties?" Paper presented at the Canadian Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Edmonton, Alberta. June 12–15, 2012. Available from:

Karp, Jeffrey A., and David Brockington. 2005. "Social Desirability and Response Validity: A Comparative Analysis of Overreporting Voter Turnout in Five Countries." The Journal of Politics 67, 3: 825–40.

Karp, Jeffrey A., Susan A. Banducci, and Shaun Bowler. 2007. "Getting Out the Vote: Party Mobilization in a Comparative Perspective." British Journal of Political Science 38, 1: 91–112.

Katz, Daniel, and Samuel J. Eldersveld. 1961. "The Impact of Local Party Activity Upon the Electorate." Public Opinion Quarterly 25: 1–24.

Kay, Barry J., and Andrea M. Perrella. 2012. "Eclipse of Class: A Review of Demographic Variables, 1974–2006." In Mebs Kanji, Antoine Bilodeau and Thomas J. Scotto (eds.), The Canadian Election Studies: Assessing Four Decades of Influence. Vancouver: UBC Press, pp. 121–35.

Kimberlee, Richard H. 2002. "Why Don't British Young People Vote at General Elections?" Journal of Youth Studies 5, 1: 85–98.

Kleppner, Paul. 1982. Who Voted?: The Dynamics of Electoral Turnout, 1870–1980. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Koop, Royce. 2011. Grassroots Liberals: Organizing for Local and National Politics. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Kramer, Gerald H. 1970-71. "The Effects of Precinct-Level Canvassing on Voter Behavior." Public Opinion Quarterly 34: 560–72.

Lees-Marshment, Jennifer. 2012. "The Impact of Market Research on Political Decisions and Leadership: Practitioners' Perspectives." Political Marketing in Canada. Edited by Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Leighley, Jan E. 1995. "Attitudes, Opportunities, and Incentives: A Field Essay on Political Participation." Political Research Quarterly 48: 181–209.

Levine, Peter. 2007. The Future of Democracy: Developing the Next Generation of American Citizens. Medford, MA: Tufts University Press.

Livingstone, Sonia, Magdalena Bober, and Ellen Helsper. 2005. "Active Participation or Just More Information? Young People's Take-Up of Opportunities to Act and Interact on the Internet." Information, Communication and Society 8, 3: 287–314.

Lupfer, Michael, and David E. Price. 1972. "On the Merits of Face-To-Face Campaigning." Social Science Quarterly 53 (December): 534–-43.

Mair, Peter, Wolfgang C. Muller, and Fritz Plasser, eds. 2004. Political Parties and Electoral Change: Party Responses to Electoral Markets. Great Britain: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Malbin, Michael J., and Sean A. Cain. 2007. "The Ups and Downs of Small and Large Donors: A Campaign Finance Institute Analysis of Pre- and Post-BCRA Contributions to Federal Candidates and Parties, 1999–2006." Washington, DC: Campaign Finance Institute.

Mann, Christopher B. 2010. "Is There Backlash to Social Pressure? A Large-Scale Field Experiment on Voter Mobilization." Political Behavior 32, 3: 387–507.

Marland, Alex. 2012. "Amateurs Versus Professionals: The 1993 and 2006 Canadian Federal Elections." Political Marketing in Canada. Edited by Alex Marland, Thierry Giasson and Jennifer Lees-Marshment. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Marland, Alex, Thierry Glassen, and Jennifer Lees-Marshment. 2012. Political Marketing in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Marret, Alexandra. "Participating Online: The Internet and Its Role in Political Participatory Behaviour in the Context of the New Zealand General Election 2008." Masters thesis. Canterbury: University of Canterbury. Available at:

Marsh, Michael. 2004. "None of That Post-Modern Stuff Around Here: Grassroots Campaigning in the 2002 Irish General Election." Journal of Elections, Public Opinion, and Parties 14: 245–67.

Martikainen, Tuomo, and Wass, Hanna. 2004. "Nuorten äänestysaktiivisuus vuoden 2004 kunnallisvaaleissa Helsingissä." In Kari Paakkunainen (toim.), Kuuluiko nuorten ääni kunnallisvaaleissa 2004? – Vaalien aktiiveista, passiiveista ja poliittista aktiivisuutta inspiroivista tekijöistä (pp. 26–38). ["Youth Votes in the 2004 Helsinki Municipal Elections"]. In Kari Paakkunainen (ed.), Was the Voice of Youth Heard in the 2004 Municipal Elections?: Activists, Passive Contributors and Factors Sparking Political Activism in the Elections (pp. 26–38). Ministry of Education, 2004]. Available at:

Martin, Aaron. 2012. Young People and Politics: Political Engagement in the Anglo-American Democracies. London, UK: Routledge.

Mayrand, Marc. 2012. "Declining Youth Turnout: Can We Reverse the Trend?" The Hill Times. Available at:

McAllister, Ian. 2011. The Australian Voter: 50 Years of Change. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.

Melton, James. 2011. "Why Is Voting Habit-Forming? Evidence from Sweden and the United States." Prepared for presentation at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the European Political Science Association in Dublin, Ireland.

Meredith, Marc. 2009. "Persistence in Political Participation." Quarterly Journal of Political Science 4, 3: 187-209.

Michelson, Melissa R. 2005. "Meeting the Challenge of Latino Voter Mobilization." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 601: 85–101.

Milbrath, Lester W. 1965. Political Participation: How and Why Do People Get Involved in Politics? Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Company. [Purchase required]

Miller, Roy E., David A. Bositis, and Denise L. Baer. 1981. "Stimulating Voter Turnout in a Primary Field Experiment with a Precinct Committeeman." International Political Science Review 2, 4: 445–59.

Miller, Raymond. 2005. Party Politics in New Zealand. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Milner, Henry. 2010. The Internet Generation: Engaged Citizens or Political Dropouts? Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

Muller, Wolfgang C., and Kaare Strom. 1999. Policy, Office, or Votes? How Political Parties in Western Europe Make Hard Decisions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mycock, Andrew, and Jonathan Tonge. 2012. "The Party Politics of Youth Citizenship and Democratic Engagement." Parliamentary Affairs 65: 138–61.

National Democratic Institute. 2011. "GOTV, Voter Information & Voter Education." Civic Update. Available at:

Nevitte, Neil. 1996. The Decline of Deference: Canadian Value Change in Cross-National Perspective. Toronto: Broadview Press.

New Zealand Election Study (NZES).

Nickerson, David. 2004. "Just How Addictive is Voting and Why?" Yale University, mimeo.

Nickerson, David W. 2005. "Partisan Mobilization Using Volunteer Phone Banks and Door Hangers." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 601, 1: 10–27.

———. 2006. "Hunting the Elusive Young Voter." Journal of Political Marketing 5, 3: 47–69.

———. 2006. "Quality Is Job One: Professional and Volunteer Voter Mobilization Calls." Unpublished manuscript. Notre Dame, IN: Department of Political Science, Notre Dame University.

———. 2007. "Friends Don't Make Friends Vote: Selection and Reputation in Voter Mobilization." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, IL, August 30–September 2.

Nickerson, David W., Ryan D. Friedrichs, and David C. King. 2006. "Partisan Mobilization Campaigns in the Field: Results from a Statewide Turnout Experiment in Michigan." Political Research Quarterly 59, 1: 85–97.

Niven, David. 2001. "The Limits of Mobilization: Turnout Evidence from State House Primaries." Political Behavior 23, 4: 335–50.

Niven, David. 2002. "The Mobilization Calendar: The Time-Dependent Effects of Personal Contact on Turnout." American Politics Research 30: 307–22.

Norris, Pippa. 2005. Political Parties and Democracy in Theoretical and Practical Perspectives: Developments in Party Communications. Boston: National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. Available at:

———. 2011. Democratic Deficit: Critical Citizens Revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

O'Cass, Aaron. 2009. "A Resource-Based View of the Political Party and Value Creation for the Voter-Citizen: An Integrated Framework for Political Marketing." Marketing Theory 9, 2: 189–208.

Panagopoulos, Costas. 2009. "Partisan and Nonpartisan Message Content and Voter Mobilization: Field Experimental Evidence." Political Research Quarterly 62, 1: 70–76.

Pattie, C. J., and R. J. Johnston. 2003. "Hanging on the Telephone? Doorstep and Telephone Canvassing at the British General Election of 1997." British Journal of Political Science, 33: 303–22.

Perlin, George, Alex Sutherland, and Marc Desjardins. 1988. "The Impact of Age Cleavage on Convention Politics." The Politics of National Party Conventions. Edited by George Perlin. Scarborough: Prentice Hall.

Pintor, Rafael López, et al. 2012. Voter Turnout Rates from a Comparative Perspective. Strömsborg, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA). Available at:

Piven, Frances F. 2000. Why Americans Still Don't Vote: And Why Politicians Want It That Way. Boston: Beacon Press Books.

Reynolds, Andrew, Ben Reilly and Andrew Ellis. 2005. Electoral System Design: The New International IDEA Handbook. Stockholm: IDEA. Available at:

Rosenstone, Steven J., and John Mark Hansen. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada.

Rubenson, Daniel., et al. 2004. "Accounting for the Age Gap in Turnout." Acta Politica 39, 4: 407–21.

Rudd, Chris, and Janine Hayward 2006. "Elections: Campaigning." New Zealand Government & Politics. Edited by Raymond Miller. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Russell, Andrew. 2005. "Political Parties as Vehicles of Political Engagement." Parliamentary Affairs 58, 3: 555–69.

Samara. 2011. "The Real Outsiders: Politically Disengaged Views on Politics and Democracy." Toronto: Samara.

Seidle, F. Leslie. 2011. "Public Funding of Political Parties: The Case for Further Reform." Money, Politics, and Democracy: Canada's Party Finance Reforms. Edited by Lisa Young and Harold J. Jansen. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Semiatin, Richard J. 2013. Campaigns on the Cutting Edge. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press.

Shea, Daniel M. 2004. "Throwing a Better Party: Local Mobilizing Institutions and the Youth Vote." Circle Working Paper 13. Available at:

Shea, Daniel M., and John C. Green. 2004. The Fountain of Youth: Political Parties and the Mobilization of Young Americans. Available at:

Shea, Daniel M., and John C. Green. 2007. Fountain of Youth: Strategies and Tactics for Mobilizing America's Young Voters. Lamham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Sloam, J. 2007. "Rebooting Democracy: Youth Participation in Politics in the UK." Parliamentary Affairs 60: 548–567.

Small, Tamara A. 2008. The Facebook Effect? On-Line Campaigning in the 2008 Campaign and the US Elections. Institute for Research on Public Policy. Available at:

Teixeria, Ruy A. 1987. Why Americans Don't Vote: Turnout Decline in the United States, 1960–1984. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press Inc.

The George Washington University. 2006. "Young Voter Mobilization Tactics." Prepared for CIRCLE. Available at:

Tilley, James R. 2003. "Party Identification in Britain: Does Length of Time in the Electorate Affect Strength of Partisanship?" British Journal of Political Science 33, 2: 332–344.

Tonge, Jonathan, and Andrew Mycock. 2009. "Citizenship and Political Engagement Among Young People: The Workings and Findings of the Youth Citizenship Commission." Parliamentary Affairs 63: 182–200.

Turcotte, André. 2005. "Different Strokes: Why Young Canadians Don't Vote." Electoral Insight. Available at:

———. 2007. "'What Do You Mean I Can't Have a Say?' Young Canadians and Their Government." Canadian Policy Research Networks Research Report. (CPRN research materials now hosted by Carleton University Library. Contact about use of materials.)

UK Electoral Commission. 2002. Voter Engagement and Young People. Available at: "Obama Grassroots Efforts Called Biggest Ever." October 12, 2008. Accessed at:

van Biezen, Ingrid. 2004. "Political Parties as Public Utilities." Party Politics 10, 6: 701–22.

Verba, Sidney, and Norman H. Nie. 1972. Participation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Verba, Sidney, Kay L. Schlozman, and Henry E. Brady. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Vowles, Jack, ed. 2004. Voters' Veto: The 2002 Election in New Zealand and the Consolidation of Minority Government. Auckland: Auckland University Press.

Vowles, Jack, et al. 2002. Proportional Representation on Trial. Auckland: Auckland University Press.

Ward, Stephen, Rachel Gibson, and Wainer Lusoli. 2003. "Online Participation and Mobilisation in Britain: Hype, Hope and Reality." Parliamentary Affairs 56, 4: 652–68.

Wattenberg, M. P. 2002. Where Have All the Voters Gone? Boston: Harvard University Press.

Whiteley, Paul F., and Patrick Seyd. 1994. "Local Party Campaigning and Electoral Mobilization in Britain." The Journal of Politics 56: 242–52.

———. 2002. High Intensity Participation: The Dynamics of Party Activism in Britain. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

———. 2003. "Party Election Campaigning in Britain." Party Politics 9: 637–52.

Wong, Janelle S. 2005. "Mobilizing Asian American Voters: A Field Experiment." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 601, 1: 102–14.

Young, Lisa, and William Cross. 2007. A Group Apart: Young Party Members in Canada. Canadian Policy Research Networks Research Report. (CPRN research materials now hosted by Carleton University Library. Contact about use of materials.)

Youniss, James, and Peter Levine. 2009. Engaging Young People in Civic Life. Nashville; TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

Youth Citizenship Commission. 2009. Making the Connection: Building Youth Citizenship in the UK. Final Report of the Youth Citizenship Commission. Available at:

Zimmerman, Ann, and Jessica Erbe. 2002. "The Transformation of Political Mobilisation and Communication in European Public Spheres." Paper prepared for the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission. Europub. Available at:

Zovatto, Daniel. 2006. "Youth Electoral Participation in Latin America: What We Know, What We Think We Know, and What We Need to Know." Paper prepared for the 20th International Political Science Association World Congress, Fukuoka, Japan.